Journals →  Eurasian Mining →  2023 →  #1 →  Back

ArticleName Geomechanical monitoring and stress–strain analysis of lining in ultra deep mine shafts
DOI 10.17580/em.2023.01.03
ArticleAuthor Pleshko M. S., Pankratenko A. N., Nasonov A. A., Isaev A. S.

National University of Science and Technology–MISIS, Moscow, Russia1 ; Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia2:

Pleshko M. S.1,2, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences,


National University of Science and Technology–MISIS, Moscow, Russia:
Pankratenko A. N., Head of Department, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences


Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), Novocherkassk, Russia:
Nasonov A. A., Associate Professor, Candidate of Engineering Sciences


Management Company ELSI LLC, Yakutia, Russia:
Isaev A. S., Chief Executive Officer, Candidate of Engineering Sciences


Currently Skalisty Mine in the Norilsk Region of Russia is finishing construction of two vertical shafts 2050 m deep in very difficult geological and climatic conditions. This study uses the geotechnical monitoring data on one shaft and the stage-wise numerical modeling results to reveal mechanisms of stresses in the shaft lining and to assess efficiency of technologies and designs in use. It was found that high stress relaxation took place in the region around the shaft before installation of permanent support. The measured normal and shear stresses in shotcrete lining exceeded the calculated values, and the asymmetry of the stresses was observed in the cross-section of the shaft. Regarding the permanent support, the measured maximal compressive stresses were lower than the calculation. The analysis confirms the ultra deep shaft stability. The assumed designs and technologies for the ultra deep shaft construction are optimal.

keywords Mine shaft, lining, rock mass, monitoring, numerical modeling, stresses, displacements, concrete, strength

1. Corkum A. G., Damjanac B., Lam T. Variation of horizontal in situ stress with depth for long-term performance evaluation of the Deep Geological Repository project access shaft. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2018. Vol. 107. pp. 75–85.
2. Kaledin O. S. Innovative construction technology for ultra deep shafts. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2014. No. 4. pp. 77–81.
3. Zubkov A. V., Feklistov Yu. G., Sentyabov S. V. Special characteristics of stress-strain state development in a concrete support of Donskoy and Gaisky GOKs shafts. Izvestiya vuzov. Gornyi zhurnal. 2019. No. 4. pp. 12–23.
4. Kharisov T. F. Mine shaft rock walls convergence investigations in the conditions of the out-of-limit state of the borehole massif. Izvestiya vuzov. Gornyi zhurnal. 2017. No. 5. pp. 46–51.
5. Sentyabov S. V. Analysis and prediction of change in stress state of shaft lining in Gaisky mine. GIAB. 2018. No. 10. pp. 79–85.
6. Kazikaev D. M., Sergeev S. V. Diagnostics and monitoring of stressed state of vertical shafts’ timbering. Moscow : Gornaya kniga, 2011. 244 p.
7. Lucier A. M., Zoback M. D., Heesakkers V., Reches Z., Murphy S. K. Constraining the far-field in situ stress state near a deep South African gold mine. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2009. Vol. 46, Iss. 3. pp. 555–567.
8. Strickland B., Board M., Sturgis G., Berberick D. Elliptical shaft excavation in response to depth induced ground pressure. The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World : 2016 SME Annual Conference & Expo. Phoenix, 2016.
9. Walton G., Kim E., Sinha S., Sturgis G., Berberick D. Rock Mechanics Challenges for the Excavation of a Deep Shaft in Anisotropic Ground. 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics. Geomechanics Symposium. Seattle, 2018. Vol. 5. pp. 4031–4036.
10. Weizhang Liang, Guoyan Zhao, Xi Wang, Jie Zhao, Chunde Ma. Assessing the rockburst risk for deep shafts via distance-based multicriteria decision making approaches with hesitant fuzzy information. Engineering Geology. 2019. Vol. 260. 105211. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.105211
11. Xiaowei Feng, Nong Zhang, Fei Xue. et al. Practices, experience, and lessons learned based on field observations of support failures in some Chinese coal mines. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2019. Vol. 123. 104097. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2019.104097
12. Han J.Y., Guo J., Jiang Y. S. Monitoring tunnel profile by means of multi-epoch dispersed 3D LiDAR point clouds. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2013. Vol. 33. pp. 186–192.
13. Jones E., Beck D. The use of three-dimensional laser scanning for deformation monitoring in underground mines. 2017. Available at: (accessed: 21.04.2022).
14. Yun H. B., Park S. H., Mehdawi N., Mokhtari S., Chopra M. et al. Monitoring for close proximity tunneling effects on an existing tunnel using principal component analysis technique with limited sensor data. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2014. Vol. 43. pp. 398–412.
15. Zhou H., Qu C.K., Hu D. W., Zhang C. Q., Azhar M. U. In situ moni toring of tunnel deformation evolutions from auxiliary tunnel in deep mine. Engineering Geology. 2017. Vol. 221. pp. 10–15.
16. Di Murro V., Pelecanos L., Soga K., Kechavarzi C., Morton R. F., et al. Long term deformation monitoring of CERN concrete-lined tunnels using distributed fibre-optic sensing. Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA. 2019. Vol. 50, Iss. 2. pp. 1–7.

17. Forbes B., Vlachopoulos N., Hyett A. J. The application of distributed optical strain sensing to measure the strain distribution of ground support members. FACETS. 2018. Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. 195–226.
18. Klar A., Dromy I., Linker R. Monitoring tunneling induced ground displacements using distributed fibre-optic sensing. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2014. Vol. 40. pp. 141–150.
19. Pleshko M. S., Silchenko Yu. A., Pankratenko A. N. et al. Improvement of the analysis and calculation methods of mine shaft design. GIAB. 2019. No. 12. pp. 55–66.

Full content Geomechanical monitoring and stress–strain analysis of lining in ultra deep mine shafts