Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2022 →  #5 →  Back

Preparation of raw materials
ArticleName Formation of the strength of pelletized multiphase dicalcium silicate sinter
DOI 10.17580/chm.2022.05.07
ArticleAuthor A. B. Lebedev, P. V. Musinova

St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg, Russia:

A. B. Lebedev, Cand. Eng., Scientific Researcher, Resource Processing Research Center, e-mail:
P. V. Musinova, Student, e-mail:


To ensure the comprehensive use of mineral raw materials and the widespread use of waste instead of minerals, it is necessary to deepen the search and scientific substantiation of the relevant reserves. The main waste of alumina production is red mud (RM), which has a complex chemical composition with the main content of iron oxide, which makes it possible to use the sludge in ferrous metallurgy as an additive to increase the strength of iron ore pellets. The degree of urgency of this task is quite high, since RM and iron ore raw materials of domestic and foreign deposits have their own specifics and give different strengthening effects. The nature of the hardening of the agglomerate with the addition of RM is based on the stabilization of the dicalcium silicate present in the pellet structure. A technique has been developed for the mechanism of formation of the multiphase sinter strength and a laboratory setup has been created that makes it possible to obtain a sample on a platinum loop at heat treatment temperatures of 1400 C with subsequent testing of stability and strength. The method of hardening mechanism takes into account the temperature level, shape and size of the obtained sample. The effect of calcium ferrite mineralizer on the stabilization of dicalcium silicate depending on its content in the charge was studied. It was determined that calcium ferrite in the amount of 10–15 % sharply accelerates the synthesis of dicalcium silicate. When recalculating the composition of a stable sinter to the composition of a fluxed pellet, at least 1.5–2.0 % of RM is required to achieve the stability of β-dicalcium silicate. The quality of the sinter, its stabilization or spontaneous crumbling were determined visually during the cooling of the sinter, the completeness of the crumbling process was determined by sieve analysis of the decomposition product.

keywords Red mud, sintering, pellet hardening, strength formation, iron ore concentrate, dicalcium silicate polymorphism, calcium ferrite mineralizer

1. Aleksandrov V. I., Timukhin S. А., Makharatkin P. N. Energy efficiency of hydraulic transportation of iron ore tailings at Kachkanar MPP. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2017. Vol. 225 pp. 330–337.
2. Bakirov А. G., Zhunusov А. К., Chekimbaev А. F., Shoshay Zh. Study of the specific electrical resistance of charge mixtures for the ferrosilicoaluminum smelting. Nauka i tekhnika Kazakhstana. 2018. No. 2. pp. 14–18.
3. Maksimov L. I., Mironov V. V. Improvement of the technology for obtaining highly dispersed powders of metallic iron from the sludge of an iron removal station. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitelnogo universiteta. 2020. Vol. 22. No. 2. pp. 162–173.
4. Ganin D. R., Druzhkov V. G., Panychev А. А., Shapovalov А. N., Shevchenko Е. А. Study of the influence of additives of serpentinite magnesites of the Khalilovsky deposit on indicators of the sintering process at JSC Ural Steel. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta imeni G. I. Nosova. 2017. Vol. 15. No. 1. pp. 20–26.
5. Sizyakov V. М., Brichkin V. N. On the role of calcium hydrocarboaluminates in improving the technology of complex processing of nephelines. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2018. Vol. 231. pp. 292–298.
6. Belikov I. P., Isaenko G. Е., Nechkin G. А., Kobelev V. А. The use of manganese limestone as a fluxing additive in the production of pellets. Chernaya metallurgiya. Byulleten nauchnotekhnicheskoy i ekonomicheskoy informatsii. 2018. No. 12. pp. 27–32.
7. Valeev D. V., Zinoveev D. V., Varnavskaya А. D. Reduction smelting of alkali-free red mud to produce metal and aluminum-containing slag. Trudy Kolskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN. 2019. Vol. 10. No. 1 (3). pp. 44–51.
8. Ismagilov R. I., Kozub А. V., Gridasov I. N., Shelepov E. V. Modern directions for increasing the efficiency of processing of ferruginous quartzites on the example of JSC Mikhailovsky MPP named after A. V. Varichev. Gornaya promyshlennost. 2020. No. 4. pp. 98–103.
9. Ning G., Zhang B., Liu C., Li S., Ye Y., Jiang M. Large-Scale Consumption and Zero-Waste Recycling Method of Red Mud in Steel Making Process. Minerals. 2018. Vol. 8, Iss. 3. p. 102.
10. Sadangi J. K., Das S. P., Tripathy A., Biswal S. K. Investigation into recovery of iron values from red mud dumps. Separation Science and Technology. 2018. Vol. 53, Iss. 14. pp. 2186–2191.
11. Taye E. A., Roether J. A., Schubert D. W., Redda D. T., Boccaccini A. R. Hemp Fiber Reinforced Red Mud/Fly Ash Geopolymer Composite Materials: Effect of Fiber Content on Mechanical Strength. Materials. 2021. Vol. 14, Iss. 3. pp. 511.
12. Liu S., Li Z., Li Y., Cao W. Strength properties of Bayer red mud stabilized by lime-fly ash using orthogonal experiments. Construction and Building Materials. 2018. Vol. 166. pp. 554–563.
13. Kochkarova Kh. S. Microalloyed hot-worked powder materials based on iron. Dissertation … of Candidate of Engineering Sciences. Novocherkassk, 2020. 205 p.
14. Gorbachev S. N., Aleksandrov А. V., Ordon S. F. Prospects for the implementation of technology for ultra-dry storage of red mud. Zhurnal Sibirskogo federalnogo universiteta. Tekhnika i tekhnologii. 2017. Vol. 10. No. 7. pp. 854–861.
15. Li S., Zhang J., Li Z., Liu C., Chen J. Feasibility study on grouting material prepared from red mud and metallurgical wastewater based on synergistic theory. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021. Vol. 407. p. 124358.
16. Liu T., Zhang J., Wu J., Liu J., Li C., Ning T., Luo Z., Zhou X., Yang Q., Lu A. The utilization of electrical insulators waste and red mud for fabrication of partially vitrified ceramic materials with high porosity and high strength. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019. Vol. 223. pp. 790–800.
17. Zhao Y., Liang N., Chen H., Li Y. Preparation and properties of sintering red mud unburned road brick using orthogonal experiments. Construction and Building Materials. 2020. Vol. 238. p. 117739.
18. Konoplin R. R., Pyagay I. N. Optimization of the phase composition of raw materials based on aluminum hydroxide for extrusion catalyst supports. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2022. No. 2. pp. 11–18.
19. Feng Y., Yang C. Analysis on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Red Mud Materials and Stockpile Stability after Dilatation. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2018. Vol. 2018. p. e8784232.
20. Hamid S., Bae S., Lee W. Novel bimetallic catalyst supported by red mud for enhanced nitrate reduction. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2018. Vol. 348. pp. 877–887.
21. Song Y., Hu J., Liu J., Evrendilek F., Buyukada M. Catalytic effects of CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and red mud on Pteris vittata combustion: Emission, kinetic and ash conversion patterns. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020. Vol. 252. p. 119646.
22. Xiao K., Guan R., Yang J., Li H., Yu Z., Liang S., Yu W., Hu J., Hou H., Liu B. Effects of red mud on emission control of NOx precursors during sludge pyrolysis: A protein model compound study. Waste Management. 2019. Vol. 85. pp. 452–463.
23. Krivenko P., Petropavlovskyi O., Kovalchuk O., Lapovska S., Pasko A. Design of the composition of alkali activated portland cement using mineral additives of technogenic origin. Eastern-European journal of enterprise technologies. 2018. Vol. 4, Iss. 6 (94). pp. 6–15.
24. Lobanov D. A., Sheshukov O. Yu., Mikheenkov M. A. Red mud recycling with the extraction of ironbearing concentrate and cement clinker. Science. Business. Society. 2017. Vol. 2, Iss. 1. pp. 13–14.
25. Zubkova O., Alexeev A., Polyanskiy A., Karapetyan K., Kononchuk O., Reinmöller M. Complex Processing of Saponite Waste from a Diamond-Mining Enterprise. Applied Sciences. 2021. Vol. 11. Iss. 14. p. 6615.
26. Romano R. C. O., Bernardo H. M., Maciel M. H., Pileggi R. G., Cincotto M. A. Hydration of Portland cement with red mud as mineral addition. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 2018. Vol. 131, Iss. 3. pp. 2477–2490.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy