Journals →  Gornyi Zhurnal →  2018 →  #11 →  Back

ArticleName Integrated modeling of waste dump slope stability
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2018.11.17
ArticleAuthor Pendin V. V., Fomenko I. K., Gorobtsov D. N., Nikulina M. E.

Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, Moscow, Russia:

V. V. Pendin, Head of Chair, Professor, Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences
I. K. Fomenko, Professor, Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences
D. N. Gorobtsov, Associate Professor, Candidate of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences
M. E. Nikulina, Lecturer, Candidate of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences,


Instability of waste dumps is one of the problems with large ecological and economic consequences in mining. Standard calculation procedures fail to estimate stability of slopes of mining waste dumps. This article considers an integrated slope stability estimation procedure based on the comparison of the data obtained in the traditional calculation scheme (when estimated characteristics of waste properties are set within the delineated geotechnical elements); from the probabilistic analysis (when nonuniformity of waste materials is taken into account using probabilistic functions of distribution of physical and mechanical properties); and by plotting the distribution fields of waste properties. Furthermore, 3D modeling of dump slope stability was performed using the methods of limit equilibrium (Bishop, Janby and Morgenstern–Price) and finite elements. The conventional calculation of waste dump slope stability shows that the dump is stable subject to the preset design parameters according to FEM and Morgenstern–Price method and is conditionally stable by Janby and Bishop. In the meanwhile, the probabilistic analysis shows the probability of landslide (according to all methods), and the Janby methods even estimates the landslide probability as high (37 %). The implicit modeling analysis points at the invalidity of estimating mining waste as a single geotechnical element since both internal friction angle distribution and cohesion distribution fields in waste dumps show stratification. From the evidence of the analysis, under the strength characteristics obtained by static probing, the dump is stable according to FEM and Morgenstern–Price method and is unstable by Junby. Objectiveness of the results was estimated by 3D modeling of waste dump slope stability using the methods of limit equilibrium. Surprisingly, Ks calculated by Morgenstern–Price was lower in 3D variant than in 2D formulation.

keywords Stability assessment, mining waste, properties interpolation, stability coefficient, probabilistic analysis, 3D modeling, implicit modeling, static probing

1. Iyin S.A., Pastikhin D. V. State and prospects of development of the open method of development of deposits reached-owned resources. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten. 2013. Special issue 1. Proceedings of international scientific symposium “Miner’s Week-2013”. pp. 364–383.
2. Zhitinskaya O. M., Yarg L. A. Changes in the components of the natural environment with the longterm development in the opencast mines (the case of KMA). Proceedings of higher educational establishments. Geology and Exploration. 2018. No. 1. pp. 49–61.
3. GOST 25100–2011. Soils. Classification. Introduced: 01.01.2013. Moscow : Standartinform, 2013. 30 p.
4. Mayer J. M., Stead D. A comparison of traditional, step-path, and geostatistical techniques in the stability analysis of a large open pit. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. 2017. Vol. 50, Iss. 4. pp. 927–949.
5. Bufeev F. K., Fomenko I. K., Sirotkina О. N. Influence of interpolation methods for strength properties of the soil on the results of calculation of slope stability. International Research Journal. 2016. No. 4(46). pp. 127–133.
6. Krahn J. Stability modeling with SLOPE/W. An Engineering Methodology. Calgary : GEO-SLOPE International Ltd., 2004. 396 p.
7. Zerkal O. V., Fomenko I. K. Influense of various factors on the results of probabilistic analysis of landslide activization. Engineering Geology. 2016. No. 1. pp. 16–22.
8. Pendin V. V., Fomenko I. K. Methodology of Landslide Hazard Estimation and Prediction. Moscow : Leonand, 2015. 320 p.
9. Griffiths D. V., Fenton G. A. Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis by Finite Elements. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2004. Vol. 130, Iss. 5. pp. 507–518.
10. Godovnikov N. A., Dunaev V. A. A probabilistic method of predicting potential deformations of the ledges in solid rock. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten. 2015. No. 5. pp. 81–83.
11. Javankhoshdel S., Bathurst R. J. Simplified probabilistic slope stability design charts for cohesive and cohesive-frictional (c-φ) soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 2014. Vol. 51, No. 9. pp. 1033–1045.
12. Javankhoshdel S., Luo N., Bathurst R. J. Probabilistic analysis of simple slopes with cohesive soil strength using RLEM and RFEM. Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards. 2017. Vol. 11, Iss. 3. pp. 231–246.
13. Slide 2D limit equilibrium slope stability for soil and rock slopes: Sample Problems. Rocscience. 59 p.
14. 3D Limit Equilibrium Slope Stability Analysis: Introducing Slide 3. Rocscience, 2017. 5 p.
15. Tabarroki M., Ahmad F., Banaki R., Jha S., Ching J. Determining the Factors of Safety of Spatially Variable Slopes Modeled by Random Fields. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2013. Vol. 139, Iss. 12. pp. 2082–2095.
16. Bishop A. W. The use of the Slip Circle in the Stability Analysis of Slopes. Géotechnique. 1955. Vol. 5, Iss. 1. pp. 7–17.
17. Janbu N. Application of composite slip surface for stability analysis. Proceedings of the European Conference on Stability of Earth Slopes. Stockholm, 1954. pp. 43–49.
18. Morgenstern N. R., Price V. E. The Analysis of the Stability of General Slip Surfaces. Géotechnique. 1965. Vol. 15, Iss. 1. pp. 79–93.
19. Duncan J. M., Wright S. G., Brandon T. L. Soil Strength and Slope Stability. 2nd еd. Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. 336 p.
20. Hammah R., Yacoub T., Corkum B., Curran J. A Comparison of Finite Element Slope Stability Analysis with Conventional Limit-Equilibrium Investigation. Proceedings of the 58th Canadian Geotechnical Conference. Saskatchewan, 2005.
21. Allan F. C., Yacoub T. E., Curran J. H. On Using Spatial Methods for Heterogeneous Slope Stability Analysis. Proceedings of the 46th U.S. Rock Mechanics. Geomechanics Symposium. New York : Curran Associates, Inc., 2012. Vol. 3. pp. 2203–2211.
22. Cho S. E. Effects of spatial variability of soil properties on slope stability. Engineering Geology. 2007. Vol. 92, Iss. 3–4. pp. 97–109.
23. Cowen E. J., Beatson R. K., Ross H. J., Fright W. R., McLennan T. J. et al. Practical Implicit Geological Modelling. Proceedings of the 5th International Mining Geology Conference. Carlton : The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2003. pp. 89–99.
24. Skempton A. W. Residual strength of clays landslides, folded strata and the laboratory. Géotechnique. 1985. Vol. 35, Iss. 1. pp. 3–18.

Full content Integrated modeling of waste dump slope stability