Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2017 →  #2 →  Back

ArticleName Alkaline autoclave opening of beryllium concentrates on Ermakovskoe deposit
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2017.02.09
ArticleAuthor Nesterov K. N., Radushinskiy S. M., Alekberov Z. M.

Leading Scientific-Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia:

K. N. Nesterov, Senior Researcher, e-mail:
S. M. Radushinskiy, Head of Autoclave Group, e-mail:
Z. M. Alekberov, Leading Engineer, e-mail:


This paper shows the experimental results of beryllium extraction from bertrandite-phenakite concentrate on Ermakovskoe deposit by alkalineautoclave method. The method of concentrate processing was chosen; physical and chemical basis of the process were investigated; optimal technological parameters and fluorite-beryllium concentrates' processing conditions were defined. The disadvantages of modern concentrate processing technologies were found, and advantages of alkaline autoclave opening of beryllium-bearing raw materials are shown. The influence of various factors on the completeness of beryllium extraction in solution was investigated. Presence of CaO makes possible the bending of silicon, contained in concentrate, into sodium-calcium hydrosilicate. Purification from fluor is carried out by sedimentation of sodium cryolite, which is also removed with dump cake. Increasing of caustic soda concentration, temperature and time makes a little influence on the process indicators. The main opening parameters were found. The carried out investigations proved the principal possibility of usage of alkaline autoclave opening for processing of beryllium concentrates on Ermakovskoe deposit and will be the basis of recommendations for the development of innovation technology of beryllium hydroxide obtaining in the production conditions.
This scientific work was carried out within the Federal Target Program of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation “Investigations and developments by the priority ways of development of the scientific and technological complex of Russia for the period of 2014–2020”. Subsidiary agreement No. 14.582.21.0008, unique identifier: RFMEFI58215X0008.

keywords Deposit, beryllium, autoclave, leaching, bertrandite, phenakite, caustic module

1. Kupriyanova I. I., Skorobogatova N. V. Unique collections of samples from beryllium deposits — the basis of new investigations and preparation of qualified geological stuff. Ratsionalnoe osvoenie nedr. 2012. No. 6. pp. 66–73.
2. Mashkovtsev G. A., Bykhovskiy L. Z. et al. The strategy of mastering and development of mineral-resource base of rare metals in Russia in the XXI century. Strategy of use and development of mineral-resource base of rare metals in Russia in the XXI century : thesis of report of international symposium. Moscow : Izdatelstvo VIMS MPR, 1998. pp. 26–29.
3. The global market of beryllium. EREPORT.RU. The global economics. Available at:
4. Jaskula B. W. Beryllium. Mineral Commodity Summaries. Reston, USA : U. S. Geological Survey, 2015. pp. 28, 29.
5. Beryllium. Available at:
6. USGS 2014 Minerals Yearbook. Beryllium (Advance Release). USGS Mineral Resources Program. Available at:
7. Sources of Beryllium. Beryllium. The Miracle Metal. Available at:
8. Kislov E. V., Imetkhenov A. B., Sandakova D. M. The Yermakovskoye fluorite-beryllium deposit: avenues for improving ecological security of revitalization of the mining operations. Geografiya i prirodnye resursy. 2010. No. 4. pp. 30–36.
9. Kupriyanova I. I., Shpanov E. P., Anufrieva S. I. Berillium ores in Russia: mineral-resource base, technological and ecological problems. Mineralnoe syre. Seriya geologo-ekonomicheskaya. 2005. No. 18. 68 p.
10. Ermakovskoe deposit. Corporation “Metals of Eastern Siberia”. Available at:
11. Thorat D. D., Tripathi B. M., Sathiyamoorthy D. Extraction of beryllium from Indian beryl by ammonium hydrofluoride. Hydrometallurgy. 2011. Vol. 109, No. 1/2. pp. 18–22.
12. Andreev A. A., Dyachenko A. N., Kraidenko R. I. Fluorination of beryllium concentrates with ammonium fluorides. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2011. Vol. 81, No. 2. pp. 178–182.
13. Dyachenko A. N., Kraydenko R. I., Petlin I. V., Malyutin L. N. The Research of (NH4)2BeF4 Solution Purification Effectiveness. Procedia Engineering. 2016. Vol. 152. pp. 51–58.
14. Hisham K. Fouad, Mohamed S. Atrees, Wafaa I. Badawy. Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2016. Vol. 72 (S1). pp. 235–239.
15. Ospanov H. K., Murtanov G. M., Ospanova N. H., Baiboldieva A. B. Method for extraction of beryllium from the minerals of genthelvite group when processing the raw Method for extraction of beryllium from minerals of bertrandite and phenakite groups when processing the raw minerals (ores, concentrates). Patent US20160177417 (A1). Filed 18.12.2014. Publ. 23.06.2016.
16. Silina G. F., Zarembo Yu. I., Bertina L. E. Berillium, chemical technology and metallurgy. Moscow : Atomizdat, 1960. 120 p.
17. Berillium : science and technology. Translated from English. Ed.: G. F. Tikhinskiy, I. I. Papirov. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1984. 624 p.
18. Matyasova V. E., Kotsar M. L., Kochubeeva S. L., Nikonov V. I. Generation of beryllium materials out of beryllium-containing wastes for nuclear and thermo-nuclear energetic. Voprosy atomnoy nauki i tekhniki. 2013. No. 2 (84). pp. 110–117.
19. Matyasova V. E., Kotsar M. L., Dobroskokina T. A., Goryaev G. V., Dobroskokina T. A., Zhukovskaya L. V., Nikonov V. I. Method of processing of metallic beryllium wastes. Patent RF, No. 2492144, IPC C 01 F 3/00. Applied: 23.05.2012. Published: 10.09.2013. Bulletin No. 25.
20. Matyasova V. E., Kotsar M. L. High-purity beryllium compounds: preparation, properties and application. Voprosy atomnoy nauki i tekhniki. 2014. No. 2 (90). pp. 111–119.
21. Arinov B. Zh., Zorin B. L. Scientific-technological development of beryllium metallurgy on Ulbinsky metallurgical plant. Tsvetnye Metally. 2011. No. 1. pp. 67–69.
22. Yunjian Ma, Keqiang Qiu. Fluorine removal from high-fluorine beryllium ore by roasting and leaching pretreatment. International Journal of Mineral Processing. 2015. Vol. 141. pp. 1–7.
23. Ma J., Sang L., Zhang E., Shao C. Co-precipitation purification new process for leaching solution of beryllium ore containing high fluorine. Chinese Journal of Rare Metals. 2015. Vol. 5. DOI: 10.13373/j.cnki.cjrm.2015.05.013
24. Borsuk A. N., Amelina G. N., Zherin I. I. Analysis of possible ways for removing fluorine from the complex beryllium-containing raw material at UMP JSC. Procedia Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 11. pp. 107–112.
25. Bleshinskiy S. V., Abramova V. F., Druzhinin I. G., Viner L. R., Surgay V. T. Chemistry of berilluim. Frunze : Izdatelstvo AN Kirgizskoy SSR, 1955. 201 p.
26. McKee R. H. Process for the production of beryllium oxide or hydroxide. Patent 2298800 US. Published: 13.10.1942.
27. Fedorov V. D., Kotsar M. L., Degtyareva L. V., Sutyagina E. I., Dobroskokina T. A., Melnikova L. M. Method of obtaining of beryllium hydroxide. Patent RF, No. 2264986 RF. Applied: 08.06.2004. Published: 27.11.2005. Bulletin No. 33.
28. Matyasova V. E. State of technology and problems of organization of berillium production in Russia. The 65 anniversary of All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Chemical Technologies : collection of scientific proceedings. Moscow : LLC “Vinpress”, 2016.
29. Ospanov H. K., Murtanov G. M., Arinov B. Z., Kozhahmetov S. K., Baiboldieva A. B., Ospanova N. H., Rybakova V. A. Method for extraction of beryllium from raw genthelvite (danalite, genthelvite, helvite) and bertrandite (chryosberl, euclase, bertrandite) mineral groups when processing the raw minerals (ores, concentrates). Patent US20140314642 (Al). Filed: 17.04.2013. Published: 23.10.2014.
30. Crundwell F. K. The mechanism of dissolution of forsterite, olivine and minerals of the orthosilicate group. Hydrometallurgy. 2014. Vol. 150. pp. 68–82.
31. Barton M. D. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of minerals in the BeO – AlO3 – SiO2 – H2O (BASH) system, with petrologic applications. American Mineralogist. 1986. Vol. 71. pp. 277–300.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy