Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2017 →  #2 →  Back

ArticleName Gas generation during the zinc concentrate annealing
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2017.02.06
ArticleAuthor Munts V. A., Ivakina S. A., Terentev V. M.

Ural Energy Institute, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia:
V. A. Munts, Professor, Head of a Chair “Heat Energy and Heat Engineering”
S. A. Ivakina, Post-Graduate Student of a Chair “Heat Energy and Heat Engineering”, e-mail:


JSC “Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant”, Chelyabinsk, Russia:
V. M. Terentev, Leading Production Engineer of Engineering Center


The task of this scientific work was the definition of the velocity constant of chemical reaction of zinc concentrate (charge) for calculation of gas generation in fluidized bed. The obtained calculation data are necessary for thermal processes modeling in fluidized layer furnace for optimization of its operation. Charge and its basic components — zinc and iron sulfides — were investigated for research of oxidation kinetics of zinc concentrate in fluidized bed furnace. All experiments were carried out on simultaneous thermal analysis tool NETZSCH STA 449 F3 with 10 mg of close-cut fraction hangings at various temperatures. The sample was heated in argon, and, reaching the required temperature, the 28% oxygen-enriched air was supplied. The hanging mass and relative concentration of gas components were measured in the real time mode. According to the experimental data, there were defined the values of activation energy and preexponential factors of oxidation reactions of sphalerite, pyrite and charge. There was made a conclusion that oxidation reaction of zinc sulfide has a first oxygen load, oxygen oxidation reactions of pyrite and sphalerite are in inter-kinetic area (when the whole particle volume is reacted), and the charge oxidation velocity constant is decreased (in comparison with the velocity of oxidation of pure sphalerite proportionally to its content in charge). Analysis of gas generation in fluidized bed during the annealing of zinc concentrate using the obtained constants of chemical reaction velocities allowed to obtain the formula for definition of the specific consumption of annealed zinc concentrate depending on the oxygen concentration in blowing.

keywords Zinc concentrate, sphalerite, pyrite, charge, kinetics, reaction velocity constant, activation energy, preexpotential factor, gas generation, fluidized bed

1. Simultaneous thermal analysis (Thermogravimetry and DSC). NETZSCHGerätebau GmbH. Available at :
2. Munts V. A., Ivakina S. A. Using the coal burning regularities for the description of annealing of zinc concentrates in fluidized bed. IX All-Russian conference with international participation “Fuel burning: theory, experiment, applications”. Novosibirsk, 16–18 November 2015.
3. Novitskiy P. V., Zograf I. A. Assessment of uncertainites of measuring results. Leningrad : Energoatomizdat, 1991. 304 p.
4. Panshin A. M., Kozlov P. A., Terentev V. M. Kinetics of oxidation of sulfide zinc concentrates. Tsvetnye Metally. 2014. No. 2. pp. 34–37.
5. Naboychenko S. S., Ageev N. G., Karelov S. V., Mamyachenkov C. V., Sergeev V. A. Processes and apparatuses of non-ferrous metallurgy : tutorial. Ed.: S. S. Naboychenko. Ekaterinburg : Izdatelstvo Uralskogo universiteta, 2013. 564 p.
6. Klyayn S. E., Kozlov P. A., Naboychenko S. S. Zinc extraction from ore raw materials. Ekaterinburg : UGTU-UPI, 2009. 491 p.
7. Marchenko N. V., Vershinina E. P., Gildenbrandt E. M. Metallurgy of heavy non-ferrous metals. Krasnoyarsk : IPK SFU, 2009. 394 p.
8. Constantineau J. P., Bouffard S. C., Grace J. R., Richards G. G., Lim C. J. Demonstration of the conditions conducive to agglomeration of zinc calcine in fluidized bed roasters. Minerals Engineering. 2011. Vol. 24, No. 13. pp. 1409–1420.
9. Munts V. A., Ivakina S. A. Determination of the kinetic characteristics of zinc sulfide oxidation. Mezhdunarodnyy soyuz uchenykh “Nauka. Tekhnologii. Proizvodstvo”. 2015. No. 3 (7), Part 2. pp. 34–37.
10. Kantorovich B. V. Basis of theory of burning and gasification of solid fuel. Moscow : Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, 1958. 598 p.
11. Pomerantsev V. V., Arefev K. M., Akhmedov D. B. et al. Basis of practical theory of burning : tutorial for universities. Ed.: V. V. Pomerantsev. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Leningrad : Energoatomizdat, 1986. 312 p.
12. Nyberg J. Characterization and control of zinc roasting process. Oulu : Oulu university press, 2004. 114 p.
13. Guío-Pérez D. C., Prо..ll T., Hofbauer H. Solids residence time distribution in the secondary reactor of a dual circulating fluidized bed system. Chemical Engineering Science. 2013. Vol. 104. pp. 269–284.
14. Parveen F., Briens C., Berruti F., McMillan J. Effect of particle size, liquid content and location on the stability of agglomerates in a fluidized bed. Powder Technology. 2013. Vol. 237. pp. 376–385.
15. Ludowski P., Taler D., Taler J. Identification of thermal boundary conditions in heat exchangers of fluidized bed boilers. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2013. Vol. 58, No. 1–2. pp. 194–204.
16. Khzmalyan D. M., Kagan Ya. A. Burning theory and furnace arrangement : tutorial for universities. Ed.: D. M. Khzmalyan. Moscow : Energiya, 1976. 488 p.
17. Munts V. A., Baskakov A. P., Ashikhmin A. A. Gas generation calculations during the solid fuel burning in the fluidized bed. Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal. 1988. Vol. 54, No. 3. pp. 432–438.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy