Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2014 →  #9 →  Back

Iron and Steelmaking
ArticleName Efficient steelmaking and steel's contribution to a low-carbon world
ArticleAuthor P. Dahlmann, H. B. Lungen

Steel Institute VDEh (Düsseldorf, Germany):
Dahlmann P., Dr. Eng., Extcutive Member of the Managing Board
Lüngen H. B., Dr. Eng., Senior Manager Operation Unit Technology, e-mail:


In the EU the share of oxygen steelmaking remains dominant. Therefore the blast furnace will remain the dominant pre-product supplier especially for high-grade steel production. The costs for hot metal mainly determine the economic result of an integrated iron and steelworks working with the BF/BOF route. Decrease in reducing agent consumption for hot metal production in blast furnaces, increased proportion of electric steel production and process innovations, introduction of new thin slab casting lines and direct strip production processes that conserve resources, and constant optimization of processes regarding energy input (through the recovery of energy and improved coupling energy management) have led to the succeed in efficiency improvements in steel production. Huge efforts are currently undertaken to reduce CO2 emissions with the ULCOS programme, as the conventional plants are already operated at the plant minimum of CO2 emissions. The European Commission requires from the industry in total a decrease of absolute CO2 emissions of more than 80% by 2050 compared to 1990. A joint study of BCG and Steel Institute VDEh ordered by Eurofer demonstrated that this target is not reachable for the steel sector even in the case of 100% applying CCUS (CO2 Capture Usage or Storage). But the study also highlighted that innovative steel materials can be a mitigation enabler in other industries by its application. The outstanding characteristic of steel is its 100% recyclability to new steel products without quality losses. A multi pre-recycling study showed that the real greenhouse gas emission potential for steel is below 1 t CO2/t hot rolled steel by using a multiple recycling approach when assessing the two main steelmaking routes, the blast furnace/converter and the electric arc furnace route. This demonstrates that the consideration of recycling processes and the total material pool is of utmost importance to get the real CO2 emission figure for steelmaking and steel usage.

keywords Steel making, CO2 emissions, low-carbon content, ULCOS program, greenhouse gas emission, innovative steel materials, recycling

1. Lüngen, H. B.; Peters, M.; Schmöle, P.: Iron & Steel Tech. 10 (2013) No. 3, p. 76/86.
2. Source: Lüngen, H. B.: Evaluation from European blast furnace committee, 2013.
3. Hendricks, C.; Rasim, W.; Janssen, H.; Schnitzer, H.; Sowka, E.; Tesé, P.: stahl u. eisen 120 (2000) No. 12, p. 61/69.
4. Source: Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung. see also under: Endemann, G.; Lüngen, H. B.; Still, G.; Traupe, J.: Nachhaltigkeit — Mit Stahl in die Zukunft: Nach uns, ohne Öl, auf dem Weg zu nachhaltiger Produktion (Sustainability — Into the Future with Steel: After us, without Oil; On the Path to Sustainable Production), [Ed.:] Angrick, M., Metropolis-Verlag, 2010, p. 195/224,
5. Birat, J. P.; Hanrot, F.: ULCOS — European steelmakers efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Proc. 5th Europ. Coke and Ironmaking Congress, Vol. 2, 12–15 June 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.
6. Schmöle, P.; Lüngen, H. B.: Hot metal production in the blast furnace from the ecological point of view, 2nd Intern. Meeting on Ironmaking and 1st Intern. Sympos. on Iron Ore, 12–15 Sept 2004, Vitoria, Brazil.
7. Zuo, G. et al: Trials for the new blast furnace concept ULCOS, STAHL 2008 Conf., 13 Nov 2008, Düsseldorf, Germany.
8. Hirsch, A.; van der Stel, J.; Sert, D.: stahl u. eisen 131 (2011) No. 4, p. 31/40.
9. Meijer, K.: Status of HIsarna process, STAHL 2011, 10 Nov 2011, Düsseldorf, Germany.
10. Tata Steel, news release, 16 July 2013.
11. Dahlmann, P.; Ghenda, J.-T.; Lüngen, H. B.; Schmidt, T.; Schuler, F.; Voigt, N.; Wörtler, M.: Steel’s contribution to a low-carbon Europe 2050, report published on 4 June 2013,
12. Steel Institute VDEh, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2013.
13. Neugebauer, S.; Finkbeiner, M.; Volkhausen, W.; Mecke, S.; Endemann, G.: stahl u. eisen 133 (2013) No. 7, p. 49/55.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy