Journals →  Chernye Metally (Ferrous metals) →  2012 →  #11 →  Back

Iron and Steel Making
Title State of the art and future trends of ingot casting and remelting technology
Author J. Eisenkolb, R. Fandrich, R. Gerling, H.-P. Jung.
Authors' Information

Dresden, Germany:

Eisenkolb J., Engineer,


Steel Institute VDEh (Düsseldorf, Germany):

Fandrich R., Dr. Eng., Manager of Steel Production and Metallurgy


Bous, Germany:

Gerling R., Engineer


Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH (Siegen, Germany):

Jung H.-P., Engineer, Head of Bloom Casting Dept., Head of Quality Works, Process Development


Different technologies of ingot casting, sizes, moulds, refractories, casting fluxes, cooling, stripping, heat treatment, ingot quality, solidification structure, segregations and surface mistakes are described. Structure of the VDEh Steelworks Committee comprising 43 steel producing companies from Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Finland, the Czech Republic and Switzerland, 23 plant manufacturers, 11 private or university institutes and about 300 personal members. Configuration of up-hill casting, different ingot types and different refractory materials are observed. The scheme of shrouding of pouring stream by inert gas at Stahlwerk Bous is explained, the catalogue of ingot defects is presented. Simulation of casting and solidification processes are displayed. It is shown that ESR plant with inert gas operates at DEW in Siegen (formats: 420 mm · 420 mm, 1000 mm round ingots, max. ingot weights: 25 t), and Vacuum arc remelting plant operates at ThyssenKrupp VDM, Unna (formats: round ingots of 1300 mm, max. ingot weight: 30 t, left: plant consisting of two melt stations; right: remelting ingot). Optimizations are simulation of cas ting and solidification, optimization of refractories and fluxes, automation and safety management. Achievable cleanliness of ingots is characterized by combination of different processes. The remelting processes ESR and VAR are described. A comparison of the remelting techniques shows the achievable cleanness by combination of diffe rent processes. Trends in ESR are larger weights, combined static and sli ding moulds and ESRR.

Keywords Ingot casting, molds, refractories, solidification, defects, simulation, remelting, shrouding, inert gases, fluxes, safety management

1. Eisenkolb, J.; Gerling, R.: State of the art and future aspects of ingot casting in the German Steel Industry. IMF-Symposium, Pittsburgh, USA, 19. Mai 1994, S. 81/109; stahl u. eisen 114 (1994) Nr. 10, S. 10/11.

2. Eisenkolb, J.; Fandrich, R.; Jung, H. P.: stahl u. eisen 130 (2010) Nr. 8, S. 28/44.

3. Rönnecke, H. H; Pietschmann, L.: Informstahl (1981) Nr. 63, S. 1/42.

4. Banks, A. P.: A fundamental approach to the production of high integrity ingots, IMF-Symposium, Pittsburgh, USA, 19. Mai 1994, S. 1/61.

5. Buhr, H.: Feuerfestes Verschleiβ material für den Blockguss von Stahl, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerksausschuss, UA Blockguss, Freiberg, 12. Juni 1992.

6. Gerling, R.: Bewegung des Stickstoffs vom E-Ofen bis zum Block, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerksausschuss, FA Blockguss, Bous, 13. März 1992.

7. Rellermeyer, H.: Gieβen und Erstarren von Stahl, Verlag Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf, 1967, S. 111/41.

8. Eisenkolb, J.; Noky, D.:  Neue Hütte 17 (1978) Nr. 5, S. 167/70.

9. Pochmarski, L.; Hiebler, H.:  Berg- u. Hüttenm. Monatsh. 121 (1976) Nr. 5, S. 172/79.

10. Rellermeyer, H.; Lepie, G.: Das Vergieβen und Erstarren von Stahl zu Blöcken, Freiberger Forschungshefte B 137 (1967), S. 45/58.

11. Blockfehlerkatalog, Verlag Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf, 2003.

12. Hartmann, G.: Optimizing Product Quality of Steelingots using Casting, Process Simulation, Vortrag VDEh Ingot Casting Committee, Düsseldorf, 7. Sept. 2006.

13. Fransson, H.: Development for ingot casting macrosegregation, Vortrag VDEh Ingot Casting Committee, Düs seldorf, 7. Sept. 2006.

14. Gerling, R.: Erste Erfahrungen beim Einsatz eines Gieβwagens beim Blockguβ im Stahlwerk Bous, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerksausschuss, FA Blockguss, Dillingen/Saar, 8. Okt. 1993.

15. Leitfaden für das Arbeitsschutzmanagement in Blockguss-und Umschmelzbetrieben, VDEh, Düsseldorf, 2011.

16. Lambrecht, J; Rumberg, D.; Werner, K. H.: Neue Hütte 29 (1984) S. 361/65.

17. Jung, H. P.: Einsatzgebiete der Umschmelzverfahren, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerks aus schuss, FA Blockguss, Georgsmarienhütte, 10. Sept. 2009.

18. Scholz, H.: Optimale Schmelzverfahren in Abhängigkeit von der Legierung, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerksausschuss, FA Blockguss, Georgsmarienhütte, 10. Sept. 2009.

19. Holzgruber, H.: Latest developments in electro slag remelting, Bericht VDEh-Stahlwerksausschuss, FA Blockguss, Björneborg, Schweden, 25. Juni 2008.

20. Electroslag Remelting, Firmenschrift Inteco special melting technologies GmbH, März 2009, S. 14/15.