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ArticleName Substantiating the use of fine-dispersed waste product from lead-acid batteries recycling in the production of composite materials
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2019.06.08
ArticleAuthor Burdonov A. E., Barakhtenko V. V., Zelinskaya E. V., Prokhorov K. V.

Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Russia:
A. E. Burdonov, Associate Professor at the Leonov Department of Minerals Processing and Engineering Ecology, e-mail:
V. V. Barakhtenko, Associate Professor at the Leonov Department of Minerals Processing and Engineering Ecology
E. V. Zelinskaya, Professor at the Leonov Department of Minerals Processing and Engineering Ecology


Institute of Mining at the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia:
K. V. Prokhorov, Head of the Centre for Minerals Research


This paper describes the results of theoretical and practical work aimed at substantiating the utilisation of battery recycling waste for the thermal stabilization of polyvinylchloride compositions. The authors formulated the key requirements and applicability criteria set to the fillers used in polymer-mineral composites production. A number of battery recycling waste products was selected on the basis of those requirements to launch a production of polymer matrix composites. The paper describes the results of dust studies which included mineralogical analysis, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray structural analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was established that the main oxides included MnO, ZnO, PbO, Fe2O3 (gen.), S (gen.), Na2O; the main minerals included quartz (SiO2), franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and chiolite (Na5Al3F14), zincite ZnO, iron silicate (FeSiO3). IR spectroscopy revealed the following characteristic bands in the specimens: lead sulphide (PbS), zinc fluoride (ZnO), industrial compound NaPb2(CO)2OH. The paper also describes calculations of the ratio of the mass fraction of the particles in the studied material to the average particle size; maximum particle packing in the filler, including the packing density. Evidence is presented proving that, considering the above calculations and a broad range of particle size distribution, the viscosity of the polymer composition during recycling will be low producing a positive effect on the material production. The experimental study tested the process parameters designed for the production of PVC matrix composite materials. The lead compounds contained in the studied material will produce an additional effect of thermal stabilization when PVC compositions are recycled with the normally used stabilizer. Substituting some of the commercial stabilizer specified in the formula with the filler in view can help improve the processability of the composition and reduce the production cost. Moreover, the use of lead containing dust as a filler will produce a hardening effect, and the resultant material will outperform its counterparts in a number of physicomechanical parameters. The industrial tests were based on the formulas that called for the filler concentration of 30 to 60%, as well as a frothing agent. The working process parameter was established — i.e. the temperature of the melt in the barrel cylinder. Relationships were established between the extrusion process parameters and the composition components.
This research was funded by the Government, Project No. ‘11.8090.2017/BCh’.

keywords Lead containing waste, metallurgy, thermal stabilization, recycling, disposal, composite materials, polyvinylchloride, extrusion, microscopy

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