Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2016 →  #11 →  Back

ArticleName Production of semiconductor materials: brief history and modern state
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2016.11.07
ArticleAuthor Akchurin R. Kh.

Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies (Moscow Technological University), Moscow, Russia:

R. Kh. Akchurin, Professor, Chair “Materials Science and Technology of Functional Materials and Structures”, e-mail:


Semiconductor materials are the most important in the element base of modern electronics engineering. Development of solid electronics (especially microelectronics) made a great influence both on the whole scientific and technical progress, and on all human lives. The progress in development of solid electronics is mostly based on achievements in semiconductor materials technology. This paper gives a brief information about the history of development of semiconductor industry in Russia and abroad. Development stages of the basic semiconductor materials production (silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide) are described. There is given the information about the areas of application of these materials, modern state of their production technologies, and basic producers. Trends of development of the global market of these semiconductors in the past decades are shown. In spite of the repeating recessions, caused by the financial crisis and changes of market conditions, the global semiconductor industry progressively develops. There are also given the data about the sweeping development of the course, connected with the on-land solar energy, which caused the high growth of the production of polycrystalline silicon. This paper also describes the state of semicondutor industry in the USSR at the end of 1980s and in the modern Russia. There is shown the negative influence of the collapse of the Soviet Union on the production of electronic materials in Russia. There are shown the data about the attempts of solving of the formed problems (in particular the polycrystaline silicon production establishment).

keywords Semiconductors, silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, history, production, market, modern state

1. Elektronika: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (Electronics: past, present, future). Under the editorship of V. I. Siforov. Moscow : Mir, 1980. 297 p.
2. Shchuka A. A. Elektronika (Electronics). Second edition. Saint Petersburg : BHV, 2008. 752 p.
3. Ocherki istorii rossiyskoy elektroniki. Vypusk 4. K 50-letiyu elektronnoy promyshlennosti (Essays about the history of Russian electronics. Issue 4. To the 50-th anniversary of electronic industry). Compiled by V. M. Proleyko. Ed. by B. M. Malashevich. Moscow : Tekhnosfera, 2011. 624 p.
4. Seidenberg P. From Germanium to Silicon, A History of Change in the Technology of the Semiconductors. Facets: New Perspectivies on the History of Semiconductors. Ed. A. Goldstein, W. Aspray. New Brunswick : IEEE Center for the History of Electrical Engineering, 1997. pp. 35–74.
5. Stafeev V. I. Nachalnye etapy stanovleniya poluprovodnikovoy elektroniki v SSSR (k 60-letiyu otkrytiya tranzistora) (Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)). Fizika i tekhnika poluprovodnikov = Semiconductors. 2010. Vol. 44, No. 5. pp. 577–583.
6. Alferov Zh. I. Istoriya i budushchee poluprovodnikovykh geterostruktur (The history and future of semiconductor heterostructures). Fizika i tekhnika poluprovodnikov = Semiconductors. 1998. Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 3–18.
7. Milvidskiy M. G. Vklad Giredmeta v razvitie tekhnologii i materialovedeniya poluprovodnikov (Contribution of “Giredmet” Institute in the development of technology and materials science of semiconductors). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2006. No. 3. pp. 8–16.
8. Milvidskiy M. G. Poluprovodnikovyy kremniy na poroge XXI veka (Semiconductor silicon on the threshold of the XXI century). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2000. No. 1. pp. 4–12.
9. Heywang W., Zaininger K. H. Silicon: the Semiconductor Material. Silicon: evolution and future of a technology. Ed.: P. Siffert, E. F. Krimmel. Berlin : Springer Verlag, 2004. pp. 25–42.
10. Fisher G., Seacrist M. R., Standley R. W. Silicon Crystal Growth and Wafer Technologies. Proceedings of the IEEE. 2012. Vol. 100. pp. 1454–1474.
11. Naumov A. V., Naumova M. A. Razvitie rynka tekhnicheskogo i poluprovodnikovogo polikristallicheskogo kremniya v 2003–2008 godakh (Development of market of technical and semiconductor polycrystalline silicon in 2003–2008). Tsvetnaya metallurgiya = Non-ferrous Metallurgy. 2008. No. 9. pp. 27–37.
12. Naumov A. V. Rynok solnechnoy energetiki: кrizis i prognozy (Market of solar energy: crisis and forecasts). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2009. No. 2. pp. 4–12.
13. Marketingovoe issledovanie rynka polikristallicheskogo kremniya (versiya 7) (Marketing investigation of polycrystalline silicon market (version 7)). Cleandex. Konsalting i autsorsing v oblasti chistykh tekhnologiy (Cleandex. Consulting and outsourcing in the area of pure technologies). Available at : (in Russian)
14. Nekrasov A. V., Naumov A. V. Perspektivy rynka polikristallicheskogo kremniya (Prospects of the Polysilicon Market). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2014. No. 4. pp. 233–239.
15. Usachev A. M. Analiz dinamiki mirovoy industrii solnechnoy energetiki (Analysis of dynamics of the global industry of solar energy). Internetzhurnal “Naukovedenie” = On-line journal “Naukovedenie”. 2015. Vol. 7, No. 4. DOI: 10.15862/10EVN415
16. Makushin M. V. O sovremennom sostoyanii mirovogo rynka elektro niki (About the modern state of the global market of electronics). Zarubezhnaya elektronnaya tekhnika = Foreign electronics engineering. 2015. No. 4 (490). pp. 12–29.
17. Chamness L. 2015: A Year in Review — Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Market and Outlook. SEMI. Available at :
18. Potolokov N. A. Kuda prishla rossiyskaya elektronika? (Where is Russian electronics now?). Entsiklopediya russkoy mysli (Encyclopedia of Russian ideas). 2014. Vol. 21. pp. 40–77.
19. Predpriyatie “Usole-Sibirskiy silikon” poterpelo fiasko (“Usolye-Siberian Silicon” enterprise went a floop). Sibirskoe informatsionnoe agentstvo (Siberian Informational agency). Available at : (in Russian)
20. Naumov A. V. Obzor mirovogo rynka germaniya (Review of international germanium market). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2004. No. 3. pp. 7–14.
21. Mineral commodity summaries 2011. USGS Mineral Resources Program. Available at :
22. Naumov A. V. Mirovoy rynok germaniya i ego perspektivy (World germanium market and its prospects). Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya = Universities’ Proceedings. Nonferrous Metallurgy. 2007. No. 4. pp. 32–40.
23. Mineral commodity summaries 2014. USGS Mineral Resources Program. Available at:
24. Anoshin K. E., Gasanov A. A., Naumov A. V. Osobennosti sovremennogo rynka germaniya (Features of the modern market of germanium). Tsvetnaya metallurgiya = Non-ferrous Metallurgy. 2016. No. 2. pp. 67–76.
25. OOO “Germaniy i prilozheniya” (LLC “Germanium and applications”). Available at : (in Russian)
26. Gasanov A. A., Grinberg E. E., Naumov A. V. Sovremennoe sostoyanie mirovogo rynka myshyaka i ego soedineniy (Modern state of the global market of arsenic and its compounds). Vestnik RAEN = Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 2016. No. 1. pp. 25–32.
27. Balan N. N. Otechestvennaya poluprovodnikovaya promyshlennost: “modernizatsiya” s nulya (Russian semicondustor industry: “modernization” from the beginning). Konsortsium “Sistemy i tekhnologii” (Consortium “Systems and technologies”). Available at:
28. Naumov A. V. Obzor mirovogo rynka arsenida galliya (Review of the global market of gallium arsenide). Izvestiya vuzov. Materialy elektronnoy tekhniki = Materials of Electronics Engineering. 2005. No. 2. pp. 7–14.
29. Podlozhki A3B5 — GaAs, InAs, GaSb, InSb, GaP, InP (Сarrying bases A3B5 — GaAs, InAs, GaSb, InSb, GaP, InP). SM Group. Available at : (in Russian)
30. SEMI Reports 2015 Global Semiconductor Materials Sales of $43.4 Billion. SEMI. Available at :
31. Makushin M. V. SEMI: prognoz razvitiya mirovoy poluprovodnikovoy promyshlennosti do 2025 goda (SEMI: forecast of development of global semiconductor industry till 2025). Zarubezhnaya elektronnaya tekhnika = Foreign electronics engineering. 2015. No. 4 (490). pp. 3–11.
32. Chitkara R., Ballhaus W., Acker O., Song B., Sundaram A., Popova M. The Internet of Things: The next growth engine for the semiconductor industry. PwC: building relationships, creating value. Available at :
33. Kozlov Yu. F. Sovremennoe sostoyanie i problemy obespecheniya elektronnoy promyshlennosti RF spetsialnymi materialami (Modern state and problems of provision of electronic industry of Russian Federation with special materials). Setevoy zhurnal “Russkiy tekhnologicheskiy kurer” = On-line journal “Russian technological courier”. Available at:

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy